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    Prophecy and As a Prophet : Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h)

    The concept of prophethood, coeval with the first man, Adam, is one that represents the guidance of human beings, themselves the core of macrocosm, the universe. History has shown us that people are in need of Prophets as guides; many prophets have been sent to us from the day of Adam until today. Allah has sent Prophets to us as He does not leave humans alone and aimless.

    The last prophet who completed the deen (religion), “the last brick in the edifice of prophethood”, Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), has been the most remarkable cause for the receptions of blessings from Allah. In addition to the exceptional personal characteristics of Prophet Muhammad, the responsibility that he shouldered for all of mankind makes it incumbent on all to respect him. He never hesitated to make sacrifices to convey the divine message and he also presented this message in accordance with the different worldviews and emotions of the addressees. This characteristic placed the Messenger of Allah at the focal point of respect and love for all times.

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    Ya öğreten, ya öğrenen, ya dinleyen ya da ilmi seven ol. Fakat sakın beşincisi olma; (bunların dışında kalırsan) helâk olursun. Hadis-i Şerif

  2. #2
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    Jesus’ Development as a Man and a Prophet in the Gospels and the Quran

    Remzi Kaya, PhD

    A. Jesus' Development as a Man and a Prophet in the Gospels:

    Sent to the Jews, Jesus is a prophet who showed people the path Allah commanded for gaining this world and the next. Belief in the Trinity, which was attributed to him by Christian religious scholars, was not commanded by him. It is accepted as a belief that developed from the second century on under the influence of Greek philosophy and Platonic ideas and which was injected into Christianity by Paul. In spite of Arius' presenting evidence contrary to this belief at the Nicene Council, it was concluded that Jesus had both human and divine aspects as a result of decisions made at councils in Nicaea in 325, Ephesus in 431 and Kadýkoy in 451.
    Jesus' Birth:

    While in one place in the Gospels it is said regarding Jesus: "And a voice said from the heavens, ‘This is my beloved son. I approve of him'" and "The only son in his father's lap," in another place it is stated, "You are the Savior, the living son of God." In the Christian religion Jesus Christ is God in human form. God is incarnated in Jesus. To worship him means to worship God. For Jesus is from the same essence as God. It is believed that both divinity and humanity reside in Jesus.

    It is known that these beliefs regarding Jesus did not exist in the initial period of Christianity, but that they were formed as Christian beliefs at the councils. In the Nicene Council of 325 it was officially accepted that Jesus Christ was the same as the Father, and the belief that things in heaven and on earth were realized by God's son the Lord Jesus. According to information in the Gospels, he was brought into this world by Mary. This is mentioned in the Bible as follows: "Now the birth of Jesus Christ was on this wise: When as his mother Mary was espoused to Joseph, before they came together, she was found with child of the Holy Ghost." 1

    Before the birth Mary was told that she would have a son, and when the time for birth arrived, Jesus was born. Under careful consideration it can be seen that Jesus had no influence on Mary's becoming pregnant and the birth. A power on high that wanted Jesus to come to this world was responsible for these. Jesus is the creature. The process involved in the creation of other creatures was involved with Jesus' birth as well. On the other hand, Jesus was not a king. In reply to Pilatus' question, "Are you a king," he replied, "I came to this world to witness the truth; whoever upholds the truth will hear my voice."

    The Bible is one of the important proofs that Jesus is a prophet. On the other hand, these statements are made in the Gospels regarding the Creator: "Hear, O Israel; The Lord our God is one Lord." 2 "But be not ye called Rabbi: for one is your Master, even Christ; and all ye are brethren."3 "But of that day and hour knoweth no man, no, not the angels of heaven, but my Father only." 4 "The God of Abraham, and of Isaac, and of Jacob, the God of our fathers, hath glorified his Son Jesus." 5These sentences refer to the existence and unity of God and show that Jesus is a prophet of God. On the other hand, during the crucifixion, which the Quran does not accept, 6 Jesus' words, "My God, My God, why hast thou forsaken me," 7 point to his confession of helplessness as a servant. In the Gospels, Jesus describes his own condition: "Behold my servant, whom I have chosen; my beloved in whom my soul is well pleased: I will put my Spirit upon him, and he shall show judgment to the Gentiles. 8 "And when he has come into Jerusalem, all the city was moved, saying, Who is this? And the multitude said, This is Jesus the prophet of Nazareth of Galilee." 9

    "The God of Abraham, and of Isaac, and of Jacob, the God of our fathers, hath glorified his Son Jesus; whom ye delivered up, and denied him in the presence of Pilate, when he was determined to let him go." 10 This Bible text indicates that Jesus is a prophet and servant.

    Another unique trait of prophets is affirmation of previous prophets. This quality can be found in Jesus as well. "But this I confess unto thee, that after the way which they call heresy, so worship I the God of our fathers, believing all things which are written in the law and in the prophets." 11 If considered carefully, it can be understood that Jesus was a servant, that he believed in everything in the sacred books, that he came to complete rather than to remove the laws brought by former prophets, and that he was to establish justice by preventing the injustice widespread among mankind.

    Another proof that Jesus was a human being is his relationship with the Devil. In the Gospels, Satan says that he will give Jesus worldly goods if he bows down before him. "All these things will I give thee, if thou wilt fall down and worship me." 12 Jesus gives this response: "Get thee hence, Satan: for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve." 13 "Then the devil leaveth him, and, behold, angels came and ministered unto him." 14 Jesus gave very meaningful answers to questions regarding goodness and the most important commands. "Why callest thou me good? There is none good but one, that is, God: but if thou wilt enter into life, keep the commandments." 15 In regard to the most important commands, he said "Thou shalt do no murder, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness. Honor thy father and thy mother: and, Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself." 16 Jesus opposed those who occasionally tried to exalt him by bowing down before him. "And I fell at his feet to worship him. And he said unto me, See thou do it not: I am thy fellow servant, and of thy brethren that have the testimony of Jesus: worship God: for the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of the prophecy." 17 These statements in the Bible indicate that God should be worshipped, not someone created. In response to questions regarding the Afterlife, Jesus replied as follows: "But of that day and hour knoweth no man, no, not the angels of heaven, but my Father only. 18 While Jesus' saying that no one but God can know about Doomsday provides proof that he was a servant, it shows that God is powerful enough to know everything.

    As can be seen in the passages from the Bible quoted above, two important points emerge regarding Jesus. First, Jesus possesses the qualities of previous prophets.

    According to this, Jesus is a prophet and a human being. The most important proof that he is a prophet is his being given revelation. Secondly, as a necessity of being human, his knowledge is limited and he is helpless before God.
    B. The Belief in Apostleship in the Quran:

    According to the Quran, a prophet is neither a king, 19 nor a son of God. 20 Prophets are human beings and the apostles of God. Prophets carry two distinct human characteristics. 1) Dependence on their Creator. 2) Thinking, speaking, engaging in mutual relationships and dying when their term is finished.

    A prophet's miracles and book are proofs of his apostleship. The Quran mentions various miracles of prophets. Jesus is one of these. As the first human being, Adam came to this world without a father; no one looks for a father for him. Jesus also came to this world without a father. In this respect, he resembles Adam. It is known that Jesus conveyed to others the Gospel verses that were revealed to him in order to consolidate his apostleship, and that he expressed in his own words the revelation that came to his heart. He propagated the religion he brought at meetings with his disciples and in places he went. He wanted God to be praised, and the people received him as a prophet. In particular, he healed people as a result of the miracles given to him, he ate and drank, and he introduced God to people who talked like him. Different views emerged regarding his departure from this world and his personality.

    Claiming that beliefs regarding Jesus and Mary were not consistent with the Bible, God reported the real situation in the Quran.

    Giving examples from the stories of the prophets, the Quran explains their struggles. While describing these struggles, the Quran points out the beautiful qualities of the prophets like their intelligence, industriousness, foresight and talent. It emphasizes that they had no defects. The same traits can be seen in Jesus. The above qualities found in Islamic doctrine are common to all prophets. It is argued that the claims of Jesus being the son of God and his divinity did not exist during his time.

    According to Islam, Jesus is a prophet and a human being. His difference from others is his being given revelation. In the Quran God praises Jesus and indicates that he was sent to this world without a father as an example to the world and that he was sent to the Jews as a prophet. He terms the claims made about Jesus as falsehood. Verses related to this subject deal with Jesus' birth, his apostleship and humanness, and his mentioning Muhammad (pbuh).
    Jesus' birth:

    According to Islam and the Gospels, Jesus was born without a father. When Mary was told she would have a baby, she asked how a woman who had never been touched by a man could have a child. God replied, "God creates what he wishes. If He wants something to exist, He says ‘Be' and it is. 21 This verse describes Mary's becoming pregnant: "Virgin Mary, daughter of Imran, is an example. And We breathed into (her body) of our Spirit..." 22 While indicating that Mary is chaste and that Jesus is respectful, the Quran gives broad description of the birth. Comparing this event to the creation of Adam, God indicates that it was very easy for Him.

    Among Jesus' miracles is his creating a bird from mud. He blew on the bird he made, and the bird flew away. Due to their nature, birds are both male and female. Whatever the Creator's blowing the "Spirit" by means of Gabriel is, Jesus' blowing on the bird with God's permission is the same. However, no Christian scholar has called Jesus the father of birds, because no such belief was previously known. However, a thinking person can understand that Gabriel's blowing on Mary and Jesus' blowing on birds is the same. For the divine manifestation in both events is the same.
    His Development as a Prophet and Human Being:

    According to Islamic data, Jesus is God's servant and prophet. "We have sent thee inspiration, as We sent it to Noah and the Messengers after him: We sent inspiration to Abraham, Isma'il, Isaac, Jacob and the Tribes, to Jesus, Job, Jonah, Aaron, and Solomon, and to David We gave the Psalms." 23 "O People of the Book! Commit no excesses in your religion: Nor say of Allah aught but the truth. Jesus Christ the son of Mary was (no more than) an apostle of Allah." 24 In the Quran it is stated that Jesus was given the Gospel and that he was sent to the Jews who confirmed the Pentateuch. Almighty God commanded Jesus to give this message to the Jews: "He said: ‘I am indeed a servant of Allah. He hath given me revelation and made me a prophet.'" 25 "And He hath made me blessed wheresoever I be, and hath enjoined on me Prayer and Charity as long as I live." 26 "For Allah, He is my Lord and your Lord: so worship ye Him: this is a Straight Way." 27

    for footnotes : Jesus’ Development as a Man and a Prophet in the Gospels and the Quran - Lastprophet.info
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    Ya öğreten, ya öğrenen, ya dinleyen ya da ilmi seven ol. Fakat sakın beşincisi olma; (bunların dışında kalırsan) helâk olursun. Hadis-i Şerif

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    WHAT Does THE QURAN SAY ABOUT THE PROPHETS?

    Why does the Quran relate stories?

    What does someone feel, who is reading the Quran for the first time and is not accustomed to the Quran's style and topics, about this book that frequently relates stories and sometimes repeats the same story again and again?

    While reading the last message that Allah sent to mankind, what does one who wants to find some divine inspiration about his own life think when he finds many stories related to a time thousands of years in the past?

    Does a book that relates events which occurred thousands of years ago surprise or disappoint someone who, without spending too much time, wants to find in it a universal, divine text, and messages regarding today and his own problems?

    (One of the most important characteristics of today's individual is that he has no time to contemplate and find his own results; he always wants you to solve the problems he has created with package solutions you have found. Even being confronted with two or more solutions can pose a difficulty for him, for this situation will force him to make his own choice and carry the responsibility for it. In particular, I know by experience how confused people who are consulting on religious matters become when they are left with several alternatives. Regardless of claims to the contrary, they are extremely afraid to make decisions themselves regarding their lives. As Erich Fromm said, since freedom means responsibility, actually most people run away from freedom and run to the secure embrace of dependency.)

    The question of why "the Quran relates stories" pertains to the type of individual the Quran aims to produce. In order to give a correct answer to this question, first we have to answer the question, "What kind of person does the Quran want to produce?"

    How does the Quran want to see us? Not just in regard to our beliefs, our worship and our religiosity, but also pertaining to our personality, our character, our world-view, our humanity and our spiritual conditions, how does the Quran want to see us? Sound faith, beautiful worship, and sincere devoutness will all be built on this character. Can there be religious values as Allah wants if human values are not as God wants?

    When saying "as Allah wants," I do not mean just behavior; to the contrary, I am referring to our thoughts and feelings which are the source of our actions. Is it possible for someone who does not have a sound mind and heart to display sound behavior? How long can a person sustain behavior contrary to what passes through his heart? Those studying human behavior say that this is possible only for short relationships. If it is long relationships that determine the real quality of our lives, it is impossible for us to constantly play a role. Those who always pretend are fooling themselves first and by deceiving their own uniqueness, they are opening the way to becoming ordinary. Although it may appear to be better than nothing for one who has not become Muslim with his whole being to at least appear to be Muslim, and to have chosen that over completely ignoring his religion, it is obvious that this is not what Allah expects from us.

    Our personality consists of how we perceive ourselves and the sum of our value judgments. We see how even our smallest and most simple behavior can actually give us important clues as to our personality perception. But when we do not look from this perspective, we do not see that everything is important in regard to the way we eat, drink, dress, spend, shop, act as a guest or host, talk about our children, earn money, listen to our friends or explain something to them, choose a book to read, make an initial facial expression when we run into someone... We do not see that actually these and many more acts of behavior are external reflections of our basic human make-up. Instead of seeing that we triggered the way other people and life treat us and instead of seeing that the impulse coming from us was interpreted on the level of our personality and reflected back to us, we choose to think that we have been treated unfairly and, feeling sorry for ourselves, we become happy. Among the reasons for our failure there is always one that is external to us and that we can not prevent, and it waits there ready to be used when necessary.

    The human type that the Quran wants to produce can not be someone who sees his own commonness, failure and being pushed around and his not being able to live according to principles as the result of conditions imposed by life. For the people the Quran presents in the stories as examples to the worlds almost always met with more negative social circumstances than us, but they never became entrapped by those conditions. They were always people who transformed; in situations they could not change they did not choose conformity as the easy way out.

    While looking for the answer to the question, "Why does the Quran relate stories," we always meet the response, "to give examples." This is such an obvious answer that it never satisfied me. It is apparent to anyone who has the slightest interest in human sciences today that humans meet positive-negative human examples in every period of life and take them as behavior examples. Moreover, it is a necessity of the mind.

    The stories of the Quran definitely fulfill this need. But beyond this, by relating stories, the Quran prevents the interpretation of constructive verses along the lines of man's egoistic instincts. By teaching a topic to man or by advice or by means of a scholastic conference style, and in order to prevent it being misunderstood and to make it more easily understandable and to keep it in the memory - especially if it has a moral message - imaginary or true-life examples are given. This is a pedagogical method. It eliminates doubts in the minds of the readers. At the same time, of course, a model has been given. The stories in the Quran help the other Quranic verses to be better understood and to by-pass the mechanism that is always ready to produce excuses.

    Based on incalculable wisdom like this, the Quranic stories will always continue to be a part of the readers' lives and to carry special messages to them. Of course, for those who read them with that intention...
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    Ya öğreten, ya öğrenen, ya dinleyen ya da ilmi seven ol. Fakat sakın beşincisi olma; (bunların dışında kalırsan) helâk olursun. Hadis-i Şerif

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    ULU'L-AZM PROPHETS And THEIR COMMON CHARACTERISTICS

    ULU'L-AZM PROPHETS And THEIR COMMON CHARACTERISTICS


    Salih Karacabey, PhD




    Perseverance means persistence in any undertaken project and continued pursuit or prosecution of any business. Perseverance has been used in hadiths (sayings of the Prophet) in similar meanings. The Prophet said: “None of you should say: 'O God! Forgive me if You wish,' or 'Bestow Your Mercy on me if You wish,' or 'Provide me with means of subsistence if You wish,' but he should be firm in his request/prayer, for God does what He will and nobody can force Him (to do anything).”

    Ulu’l-azm refers to the messengers of Allah who possessed strong will and perseverance in fulfilling the duties commanded by Allah.

    WHO ARE THE ULU’L-AZM PROPHETS?


    It is understood that some prophets chosen among the messengers are called ulu’l-azm due to their different qualities from the others.

    Although there are different views about the number and identity of these prophets, it is generally agreed that ulu’l-azm refers to the five greatest messengers, that is, Muhammad (pbuh), Abraham, Mosa, Isa, and Noah.

    All prophets cited in the Quran strived greatly to fulfill the holy duty assigned to them by Allah. From this perspective, no prophet should be discriminated against because they were all sent as leaders to humans. Prophet Muhammad emphasized this issue in the following hadith: “I am the closest to Isa (Jesus), the son of Maryam, among all humans. Indeed prophets are half-brothers. Their religions are the same.” This should be taken into consideration when assessing prophecy and divine religions.

    Another important issue to be considered is that the circumstances of their communities and the time period in which each prophet was sent significantly differed. In this regard, Allah's mentioning some prophets as ulu’l-azm is significant; those prophets sent at milestones of humanity were described as ulu’l-azm prophets.

    COMMON CHARACTERISTICS OF ULU’L-AZM PROPHETS

    In this section, we will explain the common characteristics of ulu’l azm prophets. It must be acknowledged that other prophets also possesed most of these qualities.
    1- Coming from distinguished families mentioned in Quran


    In surah Al-i Imran (the Family of Imran), Allah states: “God did choose Adam and Noah, the family of Abraham, and the family of 'Imran above all people. Offspring, one of the other: And God heareth and knoweth all things.” Even though Prophet Moses, Prophet Jesus, and Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) were not mentioned clearly in this verse for they descend from Ismail and Ishaq, Abraham’s sons and Jews, Christians, and Muslims accepts Abraham as their forefather these prophets are within scope of this verse.


    Additionally, in verses in which Prophet Noah’s progeny was made enduring and Abraham was his descendant. That is, in Sura al-Saffat, Allah declared: “We made only Noah’s progeny to endure. And We left this blessings for him among generations to come in later times. Verily among those who followed his way was Abraham.”
    It is unquestionably accepted that after Prophet Adam, Prophet Noah had a significant role in the continuation of humanity. For the five of the prophets who are descendants of Adam, it is said: “The most distinguished among sons of Adam are five people: Noah, Abraham, Musa, Isa, and Muhammed.” Additionally, although there were centuries of time difference between them, Abraham was bonded to Noah in terms of the essentials of belief including the oneness of Allah.
    2- Being held covenant


    In the Quran, Allah informs about ulu’l-azm prophets indicating that He took their word for spreading the word of Allah, fulfilling their duty as prophets, and maintaining cooperation and alliance:
    And remember when We took a covenant from the Prophets - and from you - and from Nooh, and Ibrahim, and Moosa, and Eisa the son of Maryam; and We took a firm covenant from them (33/7). So that He may question the truthful regarding their truth; and He has kept prepared a painful punishment for the disbelievers (33/8).”
    Allah verily took oath and promise from all prophets about accepting prophecy and inviting people to Allah’s religion and fulfilling His commands. The names of especially these five prophets were mentioned to emphasize that they were ulu’l-azm prophets. Saying Prophet Muhammed’s name is to praise him and to declare that he is the leader of ulu’l-azm prophets since he is the last prophet; that is, he is the last ring of the chain of prophecy.
    3- Being sent as a Messenger


    These above mentioned prophets are both nabi (prophet) and rasool(messenger) because they were given a message for a community in the form of a holy book. Prophet Muhammed (pbuh) described Prophet Noah as the “first messenger.” A prophet who continues the book and the divine law of the previous prophet is a nabi(prophet); a prophet who was sent a new book and a new religion is both a nabi and rasool(messenger). That is, there is difference between a nabi and a rasool. A rasool was given a divine law and when he is conveying Allah’s commands, he is allowed to fight against the rebels and has the power to rule, and can actually enforce rules. However, a nabi does not fight against the rebels to his message. His duty is only to convey Allahs word to people and to warn them.

    The following verses indicate that these five prophets were given a new book besides prophecy:

    And We sent Noah and Abraham, and established in their line Prophethood and Revelation: and some of them were on right guidance. But many of them became rebellious transgressors (57/26).”
    And We bestowed on him Isaac and Jacob, and We established the prophethood and the Scripture among his seed, and We gave him his reward in the world, and lo! in the Hereafter he verily is among the righteous (29/27).”
    “...We bestowed upon the house of Abraham (of old) the Scripture and wisdom, and We bestowed on them a mighty kingdom (4/54).”

    Furthermore, Prophet Abraham prayed for his descendants to be sent prophecy and book. It is known his prayer was accepted: “Our Lord! send amongst them an Messenger of their own, who shall rehearse Thy Signs to them and instruct them in scripture and wisdom, and sanctify them: For Thou art the Exalted in Might, the Wise (2/29).” A book and wisdom was given to Prophet Muhammad. Prophet Isa was taught wisdom, Torah, and Bible. It was also mentioned in some verses that Prophet Moses was also given a book.

    In addition to the information given in many verses of Quran, Prophet Noah’s and Prophet Abraham’s qualities different from other ulu’l-azm prophets were mentioned in this verse: “And We sent Noah and Abraham, and established in their line Prophethood and Revelation: and some of them were on right guidance. But many of them became rebellious transgressors (57/26).” Their names being mentioned in this verse is important because they lived through important events at their times and they made major contributions to humanity. Therefore, they are like two important persons who came out during important milestones of human history. Prophet Noah survived the flood remembered with his name during his time.

    Therefore, he is considered as the second Adam. It is known that different nations grew from the races of Prophet Noah’s sons; Ham, Sam and Yafes. Similarly, Prophet Abraham is considered as the father of Jews, Christians, and Muslims.
    4- Possessing Divine Law


    One of the most significant qualities of ulu’l-azm prophets is their possessing divine law as declared in this verse: “The same religion has He established for you as that which He enjoined on Noah, which We have sent by inspiration to you and that which We enjoined on Abraham, Moses and Jesus: Namely that you should remain steadfast in religion and make no divisions therein: to those who worship other things than God, hard is the way to which you call them. God chooses to Himself those whom He pleases and guides to Himself those who turn to Him (42/13).” In this verse is first mentioned Prophet Noah, secondly Prophet Muhammed, and then Prophets Abraham, Moses, and Jesus who are among the ulu’l-azm prophets. In fact the names of these prophets were given together in the Sura al-Azhab. This verse emphasizes that the common message of all religions brought by prophets is that they call people to be servant of only Allah and to worship only to Allah.
    In the Quran, Allah points out this: “Not a messenger did We send before thee without this inspiration sent by Us to him: that there is no god but I; therefore worship and serve Me (21/25).” Prophet Muhammad also emphasized the same fact: “In fact, prophets are half-brothers; their mothers are different but their religions are the same.”

    Thus, their common destiny is to worship Allah who is one and unique. All prophets invited people to believe in tawhid (oneness of Allah) to ameliorate religious disorders in their time.
    5-Being given superiority in some aspects by Allah


    In the following verse of Sura al-Baqara, it is pointed out that some of the prophets were endowed above others in terms of perfection and virtue: “Those apostles We endowed with gifts, some above others: To one of them God spoke; others He raised to degrees (of honour); to Jesus the son of Mary We gave clear (Signs), and strengthened him with the holy spirit (2/253).”
    And it is your Lord that knoweth best all beings that are in the heavens and on earth: We did bestow on some prophets more (and other) gifts than on others... (17/55)”
    Surely this difference of degree between prophets is not material and physical but it is in spiritual virtues and gifts. In the Quran, it is declared that similar differences exist among people as well: “See how We have bestowed more on some than on others; but verily the Hereafter is more in rank and gradation and more in excellence.”

    As all the ulu’l-azm prohets are not specified in the verse 253 of Baqara, it is impossible to claim that the prophets who are superior to others are not only the mentioned prophets. But it can be said that ulu’l-azm prophets are among the prophets who are distinguished from others in terms of degree and excellence.

    Some of the mentioned prophets’ closeness to God was indicated in different ways. Based on the verse 125 of Sura an-Nisa’, Prophet Moses is described as Kalimallah, Prophet Isa as Ruhallah and kalimatullah, Prophet Abraham as Halilallah, and Prophet Muhammad as habiballah.

    However, these descriptions are not the only ones which made these prophets superior to others. For instance, Prophet Muhammad had many qualities that made him superior to others. Even though in the Quran it is stated that believers say “We do not discriminate among any of God’s prophets”, this is true for stating that believers reject prophecy of some prophets while they accept some of them. As indicated in the verses 253 of Sura al-Baqara and the verse 55 of Sura al-Isra, it is truly clear that Prophet Muhammad is above all prophets in terms of virtue and degree because he was sent as “mercy to all creatures,” the last prophet, and the speaker of a unique religion while the other prophets were sent to a certain nation and for a certain period of time. Also the superiority of the religion he brought was indicated as in this verse:
    “It is He Who has sent His Messenger with Guidance and the Religion of Truth, to proclaim it over all religion: and enough is God for a Witness (48/28)”

    However, Prophet Muhammad asked people not to start a race of virtue between himself and other prophets, and he said: “do not discriminate prophets in terms of virtue”. Besides all believers accept this in principle, it is understood that accepting Prophet Muhammad’s prophecy should not lead to reject the prophecy of any other prophets. Prophet Muhammad pointed out the fact that he was superior to other prophets as in the following hadith:
    The difference between me and the prophets before me are like this man who built that building; this man built a building nicely, decorated it, and finished it. But there was a missing adobe in one of the corners of the building. People began to walk around it. They adored it but they said ‘we wish that adobe was in place, too.’ That adobe is me. I am the last of prophets.”
    I am the master of sons of Adam. I will be the first whose tomb will be opened. I will be the first to intercede and whose intercession would be accepted.”
    “I am above all human beings on the day of judgement. The flag of praise will be in my hands but I am never boasting. On that day Adam and all other prophets will be under my flag. I will be the first to intercede and whose intercession would be accepted but I am not boasting with that either.”

    As it is clear in these hadiths, Prophet Muhammad gathered the high characters and qualities of all prophets in himself. As Quran is the core of all the books sent to humanity he is the core of all prophets and humanity.
    6- Possessing Strong Will and Perseverance


    In the verse 35 of Sura al-Ahqaf, Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) is advised to persevere patiently using the expression of ulu’l-azm and giving ulu’l-azm prophets as an example of strong will and perseverance. This shows that one of the common qualities of ulu’l-azm prophets is their perseverance. Indeed prophets who had strong will worked very hard to spread the word of God, and persevered the difficulties and enmities they faced with.
    Moreover, these prophets were sent in time periods in which communities were degenerated and infidelity and furor were pervasive in those communities. Sometimes they were not supported even by their families. For instance, Prophet Noah’s son did not believe him. Upon inviting his nation to believe in God, Prophet Noah was exposed to oral and verbal insults. But despite these tortures and difficulties he tried to fulfill his duty.
    Prophet Abraham’s father did not give up making idols which were opposite of the faith his son was trying to spread. He did not support his son. When Prophet Abraham is described in the Quran, it is said: “And Abraham prayed for his father's forgiveness only because of a promise he had made to him. But when it became clear to him that he was an enemy to God, he dissociated himself from him: for Abraham was most tender-hearted, forbearing.” So his tender-heartedness and perseverance were emphasized.

    Prophet Moses was born in period in which Pharaohs’ tyranny and tortures were prevailing. He himself was exposed to Pharaoh’s oppression and tortures. He lived most of his life in Madyan, and after he returned back he fought against Pharaoh and people of Israel who rebelled against him. Moreover, after reminding the tortures people of Israel made to their prophets, believers are warned not to resemble them.

    Prophet Jesus was born fatherless and only a few people believed in him when he was alive. He struggled with the rulers of Rome and rebellions of Jewish religious men. The most piteous is that he was betrayed by Yahuda Iskariyot, one of his companions and lived the crucifix event.
    Similarly Prophet Muhammad was born as an orphan because he lost his father before he was born. He lost his mother and grandfather when he was just a child. He was raised under protection of his uncle Abu Talip, and he struggled with difficulties caused by being an orphan and lonely. In order to make Prophet Muhammad give up his claims and beliefs people of Quraish made appealing offers which could make him a very rich man. But he refused all their offers unhesitatingly. He did not lose his perseverance and strong will when he faced with oppressions and tortures and he achieved his duty. None of the prophets gave up their duty and claim when they faced with difficulties.



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    THE INSTITUTION Of PROPHETHOOD

    CONCEPTS RELATED TO PROPHETHOOD

    Belief in the prophets is an important principle in Islam and in other Abrahamic religions. In order to understand the information related to this issue, one must understand various concepts concerning prophethood. Among these are concepts such as nubuwwat (prophethood), revelation, nabi (prophet) and rasul (messenger prophet).
    Prophethood


    Ahzab 45-46

    Nubuwwat is an Arabic term that means "to give news that is unknown." The use of nubuwwat to mean prophethood in Islamic culture has the following definition: "The assignment of a person chosen by Allah, the Creator of the universe, as an intermediary with humans for the purpose of informing them about religious and worldly issues and announcing the orders of Allah." Through revelations Allah has provided knowledge to the human being He chose to be messenger and has commanded them to inform mankind about all the issues that are necessary for humanity to know; among these are His own existence, His attributes, the creation of the universe with all the living and the nonliving creatures, its formation and the purpose of its creation, its system and its end, the afterlife, and the role, significance and duties of humanity among the other creatures, methods of knowledge, and the main rules that need to be obeyed in the world to ensure the happiness of individuals and societies.

    As a consequence, the revelation is an essential element in the idea of nubuwwat, and nubuwwat represents the relationship and communication between Allah and His creatures. Well, then "What is the revelation?"
    Revelation

    a) The Definition of Revelation

    The literal meaning of the word revelation is "to secretly inform, or a word that is secretly conveyed." As a term it means "an uncovering of information related to various issues via direct communication from Allah or through His messengers in the form of words or meanings." The prophet who receives the revelations knows absolutely that this information, which comes to him beyond his will, is conveyed to him by Allah. The prophet perceives, through these experiences, that the revelations are being imparted to him.

    However, physical and psychological changes happen to the prophets during the conveyance of the revelations. As a matter of fact, it is known that the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) sweated, even when the weather was cold, when he was receiving revelations, that the camel he was riding on took up a crouching position with the influence of the revelation and that sometimes the people around him heard sounds resembling that of bee buzzing. (Bukhari, "Bad'u'l-vahy", 1, "Fazailu'l-Quran", 2; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, I, 34, II, 176). Due to the miracles performed by the Prophet, the people around him knew that the information he was receiving were revelations. The revelation that constitutes the nubuwwat in the Quran is a divine address and inspiration, and was also revealed to such people as the mothers of Moses and Christ, who were not prophets, as well as to angels, to fire, to bees, the earth and the firmament. Moreover, the word revelation in the Quran sometimes refers to the feelings and thoughts imposed by Satan. However, this is only the literal meaning of the word revelation and has no relation to the revelations imparted to the prophets.
    b) Types of Revelations

    The revelations granted by Allah occurred in various forms:

    Reliable Dreams. At the beginning, the revelation occurs in the exact same form that was experienced by Prophet Muhammad in his dreams. It is known that all the dreams of the Prophet during the beginning of the nubuwwat came to be, just like the dawn of the day. Other prophets also received such revelations.


    Revelation via Angels. The revelation can be conveyed to the prophets by the Archangel Gabriel, who is assigned to carry information either in the form of his true image or in the form of a person, or without being visible. The revelations that were imparted to the Prophet by Gabriel took place in all three forms.

    Revelation without an intermediary. Allah can reveal the desired information to the prophet by directly addressing him, or by creating information within the prophet's heart. Such revelations were imparted to Moses on Mount Horeb and to the Prophet Muhammad during the Mi'raj. All three revelation types are mentioned in the Quran.
    c) The Possibility of Revelation

    The revelation, which is in essence a spiritual experience, can occur with mental activity. In the Quran it is explained that not only are there visible entities, but there are also invisible entities and the possibility of revelation is expressed in the following way: "O! People. Know that you as ordinary people were not created in a way to see all the entities. Do not think that the beings only consist of the ones you see." The prophets are created with superior qualities and they can see and contact entities that are not seen by us. This is not impossible. The fact that the living entities are created with different capabilities verifies this statement of the Quran and the results of recent scientific developments that have identified the existence of invisible entities also confirm this truth.
    Nabi-Rasul

    The term Nabi means "heralder" or "the one heralded". Rasul on the other hand means "the messenger who conveys the news". As a religious term, rasul is defined as the "person chosen among people and given a book by Allah through revelations in order to convey His orders."

    According to the information in the Quran, Allah chose the nabis and rasuls. He did not grant books only to His rasuls but also to His nabis; Moses, Aaron and Ishmael were mentioned as rasul-nabi (Al-Hadid 57/25-26, Al-Ankabut 29/27, As-Saffat 7/114-117). In addition to this, there are also explanations within the Quran which might mean that there exists a separation between the terms rasul and nabi. The term rasul is defined as "a prophet sent with a new sharia," while the term nabi is defined as the "prophet who announces the sharia brought by the previous prophet."

    Rasul is also used as a reference to an angel or the angels that act as intermediaries between Allah and His creation. However, the angels that take the souls of people are called rusul, and are described as winged messengers. These angels are referred to as rusul, while others, particularly Archangel Gabriel, are called rasul. (Al-An'am 7/37, Al-Fatir35/1, Al-Haqqa 69/40).

    Faith in the Institution of the Prophethood

    Human beings were created in order to act as the caliphs/vicegerents of Allah. Although humans are the only beings among the visible entities who are able to reason, who can choose between right and wrong, and act according to their free will, they were not abandoned with their mind and their free-will, but due to Divine grace and wisdom they were given support with the institution of prophethood so that they could solve their problems and be led to the right path. The institution of prophethood consists of the prophets chosen by Allah from among the people and the revelations imparted unto these prophets. Since the beginning of creation until the time of Muhammad (pbuh), prophets were periodically and sometimes simultaneously or consecutively sent to people; they showed them the right path which would lead them to happiness both in this world and in the afterlife and acted as guides for humanity in material and spiritual issues.

    Since the prophets promised heaven to those who had faith in Allah and spoke of the punishment of hell for those who denied Allah or acted against His commands, and as they taught people what could not be known to them through their senses or comprehension, they constituted absolute proofs of the existence of Allah for the people by providing information from the transcendental world.

    Islam, after necessitating faith in Allah, without making distinctions between the prophets, makes it an obligation for people to have faith in all the prophets and all the books brought by them. Whether they are called nabis or rasuls, people are required to believe in all the prophets. In addition to this, it is necessary for people to have absolute faith in the fact that those people whose names are mentioned as prophets in the Quran were prophets. People should also believe that each society was provided with a prophet. As a matter of fact, there are clear orders in the Quran, such as "have faith in the prophets" and it is further stated that those who refuse to acknowledge the prophets or their revelations are committing acts of distortion and that they shall be subjected to vileness on earth and thrown into hell in the afterlife. (Al-Baqarah 2/21, 151, 213; Al-i Imran 3/164, An-Nisa 4/165; Al-Anaam 6/48; Al-Ta-ha 20/123).
    The Islamic scholars agree that those who do not have faith in the institution of the prophethood and in the prophets whose names are stated in the Quran are not Muslims. On this issue there is no conflict among the scholars.


    Faith in the Prophets


    Faith in the prophets is one of the principles considered mandatory in the Quran(Al-Baqarah 2/285; Al-i Imran 3/179; An-Nisa 4/136, 150, 152), by the sunnah (practices of the Prophet) (Bukhari, "Faith", 37; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, IV, 114) and by Islamic scholars. That is, one should have absolute faith in the fact that all the prophets from Adam, the first prophet, and Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) were sent by Allah as intermediaries to people in order to convey His divine commands.
    Faith in the prophets reveals itself as a complete acceptance of all the prophets. However, as is true for each of the principles of faith, there are also detailed aspects of belief in the prophets. In order to prevent ourselves from pursuing a wrong or deviated belief, detailed information is required. This information can be divided into such topics as the number of prophets, their names and attributes.
    The Number of Prophets

    In the Quran there is no information about how many prophets were sent to humanity in total, however it is stated that for each particular society and region prophets have been sent heralding heaven for those who believed and obeyed the divine commands of Allah and threatening those who deny His existence or those who rebel against Him with hell. The names of some of these prophets are mentioned in the Quran and their struggles with their tribes are explained, yet for some of the prophets no accounts are provided.

    In some of the accounts associated with the Prophet Muhammad, it was stated that 124,000 prophets, 315 of whom were rasuls,had been sent to humanity (Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad V, 266). However, since there is no clear information, it would not be appropriate to determine an accurate number. With respect to these, belief in Prophet Muhammad and Islam involves believing in all the prophets that have been sent from the first prophet Adam and the last prophet Muhammad. However, it is necessary to have faith in each of the prophets mentioned in the Quran. The names of the prophets mentioned in the Quran are Adam, David, Elisha, Job, Aaron, Heber, Abraham, Enoch, Elias, Jesus, Ishaq, Ishmael, Lot, Moses, Noah, Saleh, Solomon, Shoaib, Jacob, John, Jonah, Joseph, Zachariah, Dhu'l-Kifl and Muhammad. The prophethood statuses of Ezra, Luqman and Dhu'l-Qarnain are controversial.

    Complete faith in the prophets is only possible by being able to perceive their qualities which are proven by the revelations. As a matter of fact, most of the time people embrace superstitious or false beliefs related to the prophets based on their own thoughts. It is known that the Jews and the Christians attribute supernatural qualities to some prophets, giving them characteristics of a deity. Islam persistently emphasizes the qualities of the prophets and provides clear information in order to prevent people from making these kinds of mistakes. It would be useful here to look at the qualities of the prophets in order to ground the issue of faith in the prophets on a more solid foundation.
    The Qualities of the Prophets

    Their Human Qualities

    The first issue which is necessary to perceive about the prophets is that they were human beings. According to this, every prophet is born, grows, sleeps, becomes hungry, acquires nourishment by eating and drinking, has children, becomes affected by the conditions of nature, loves and hates, is happy or sad, becomes ill and dies, just like all other human beings. These are the aspects of the prophets that are common with all human beings. Their human nature necessitates these qualities. It is also very natural that they have human qualities, as they are the messengers that Allah sent to human beings. Human beings converse and establish relationships with other human beings and acquire information from one another, as well as treating other people as examples.

    The prophets were assigned to teach and lead societies, thus they were granted with superior qualities which did not obviate the fact that they were human beings. Among these qualities are their intelligence, wisdom and lofty ethics; they were created without flaws and had beautiful bodies physically. In order to efficiently convey the divine messages and to struggle with people with argumentative characters it was necessary for them to be flawless and perfect physically and to have superior intelligence and wisdom in terms of their intellectual aspects. The captivating beauty of Prophet Joseph and the arguments of Prophet Abraham, which led him to defeat Nimrod and to come up with his intelligent plan to reveal the meaninglessness of idolatry, are remarkable examples of this issue.

    Despite their human qualities, what distinguishes the prophets from other people is the fact that they were created with a natural disposition that led them to perform their duties as divine messengers and to receive revelation from Allah. As a matter of fact, this issue is mentioned in the Quran and it is stated that the prophets were humans just like us, yet they received revelations. (Al-Kahf 18/110) It was only through the revelations imparted by Allah that the prophets were able to perceive this information, which otherwise is impossible to acquire through the senses or mind. It would be impossible for the prophets to know about the future unless they had received revelations. In the Quran it is clearly stated that the prophets, as human beings, were unable to predict the future, unless informed about it by Allah (Al-Anaam 6/50; Al-Araf 7/187; Al-Hud 11/31), and that they would be considered normal human beings if the revelations had not been imparted to them. It is only through the revelations that the prophets were able to perceive the future (Al-Jinn 72/26). They possessed no divine powers.

    One of the qualities of the prophets is that they were all men. In the Quran the prophets were all mentioned as "men". (Joseph 12/109; An-Nahl 16/42; Al-Anbiyaa 21/7). Although it is stated that mothers of prophets, such as Mary (Jesus) and Asiyah (Moses) received revelations, these women were not assigned to convey these revelations to the people. Since prophethood is a strenuous duty which required undergoing great difficulties and because women were not physically strong enough to bear these hardships, nor did they have the position in society required to fulfill the role of prophethood, women were not given the role of prophets.
    The Assignment of Prophets by Allah

    The prophets were people chosen by Allah. No prophet ever acquired prophethood via their own efforts. In this context, prophethood is not acquired, but divinely granted. That is to say, Allah created the person who was to become a prophet as an efficient human in terms of their spiritual and physical structure and announced who was to be a prophet (Al-Anaam 6/124). This decision is completely in the hands of the Creator. The prophethood is not passed on from father to son. The fact that the son of Prophet Noah and the father of Abraham were idolaters is proof that prophethood was not hereditary.
    Their Immunity to Sin (Infallibility)

    The prophets were exemplary people on all the issues, particularly on the issue of obedience to divine commands, and in accordance with the purpose of the duty of prophets Allah granted them immunity to sins (infallibility). It was only through their infallibility that the prophets, under divine protection from the beginning of their prophethood, abstained from evil and pursued good deeds and led people in all issues, such as worship, Islamic laws and ethics by obeying the divine commands. As a result of their human characteristics, it would be impossible for them to completely avoid making mistakes. This is because total infallibility is a quality which solely belongs to Allah. Since the prophets were human beings they were subject to making mistakes, yet such behavior was prevented by warnings from Allah. As a consequence, they ascended to a superior human level by being granted immunity to mistakes and sins.

    Adam's eating from the Tree of Knowledge, violating the divine prohibition, and Moses' killing a person occurred in the periods before their prophethood. However, no prophet committed a sin while they were prophets; during this time they were under divine protection and supervision. They were warned against their small errors and told if their behavior was not right. For instance, Prophet Muhammad granted permission to the hypocrites who presented their apologies when he set out for campaign to Tabuk (Al-Tawba, 9/117); Prophet Muhammad almost came into a state which could have been affected by the suggestions of other people (Al-Isra, 17/73-74), but was warned about this. Islamic scholars call these insignificant sins zalla. Except for the zalla, it can be seen that the prophets are different from other people with their superior morality and virtues. Moreover, being infallible is the only way for their messages to affect people. It can be understood by examining the lives of the prophets that they were protected from sin. This infallibility only applies to the prophets. No human apart from them has this characteristic.
    Their Trustworthiness (Amanat)

    Prophets are trustworthy people, not only in performing their prophetic duties, but also in the worldly acts they carry out. As a matter of fact, a breach of trust would not suit a prophet. "Whosoever embezzled will bring what he embezzled with him on the Day of Resurrection" (Al-i Imran, 3/161). The fact that prophets, who were to be exemplary figures for human beings and who were thus protected against committing sins, were trustworthy people is a result of their infallibility. Their quality of being trustworthy in every aspect is both supported by dogmas, and there is a common acceptance of this fact among people, believers or otherwise. This feature of the prophets is known as amanat.
    Their Conveyance of the Revelations

    Although this feature must be mentioned along with the trustworthiness of the prophets, it is regarded as a separate feature, known as conveyance. The fact that the prophets, who speak of heaven but also warn of hell, accurately conveyed the revelations of Allah was due to the duty which had been given them. Because it would be inappropriate for them to show indolence or negligence while performing this duty, they were given the ability to convey the revelations. As a matter of fact, the Quran clearly states that the prophets are responsible for conveying the revelations (Al-Maida, 5/67), that they fear nobody (Al-Ahzab, 33/39), that they never convey anything apart from the revelations (Al-i Imran, 3/79-80), and, in addition to their accuracy in conveying the revelations, they never show indolence or weakness while fighting in the name of Allah (Al-i Imran, 3/146). In view of these, one of the quintessential features of the prophets is their conveyance of the revelations. For this reason, every prophet that was sent conveyed revelations in the language of their people, so that they could make the message clear for them (Ibrahim 14/4).
    Ranks of the Prophets

    All prophets are reputable and superior humans. There is nobody among the people or spirits that is superior to the prophets. Although all prophets were sent revelations and assistance, there is an order of superiority among themselves in terms of the way in which the revelations were sent, the period of the prophethood and the geography to which they were sent. Some prophets were sent holy books while others were sent pages (suhuf); some prophets received revelation by speaking directly with Allah, while others prophets received revelation via Gabriel or in other ways. Some prophets were sent to a certain tribe, some of them are assigned to help other prophets, but the last prophet, Muhammad, was sent to all people. In view of this, it is natural to have a ranking among the prophets.

    The Quran mentions this issue as follows: "Of those messengers, some of whom We have caused to excel others, and of whom there are some unto whom Allah spoke, while some of them He exalted above others in degree" (Al-Baqarah, 2/253; Al-Isra, 17/35). In consideration of this, the last Prophet Muhammad is the superior prophet due to the fact that his prophethood was universal; in addition, he, brought information that will be valid for humans until the Day of Judgment, he brought a valuable book and accordingly he brought the perfection of the religion. Prophets that were sent with a new book or a new form of the religion come in ranking after Prophet Muhammad. These prophets are David, Moses and Jesus. In the verses that state a superiority among the prophets (Al-Baqarah, 2/253; Al-Isra, 17/35), the names of the prophets that are superior are given. Aside from these prophets, it is reported that Noah and Abraham are also prophets with high ranks (Al-Anaam, 6/83; Al-Ahzab 33/7). These prophets, including Prophet Muhammad, are called the ulu al-azm, meaning prophets that determinedly faced great obstacles (Al-Ahqaf, 46/35).
    Duties of the Prophets

    Although the prophets, who tried to lead humans to bliss in this world and the afterlife with the information they brought, who never charged a fee for this information and who risked their lives, fearing no threats, were called names by people such as: "liar, slanderer, wizard, madman, crazy" (Al-Yunus, 10/12; Al-Mu'minun, 23/24-25; An-Nur, 24/43; As-Sa'd, 38/4-5; Ad-Dukhan, 44/13-14), they still continued to perform their duties. In a general framework, their basic duties included the conveyance and practice of the revelations sent by Allah to humans. More specifically, we can summarize their duties as follows:
    • To report that there is no god but Allah. To invite people to believe only in Allah and to worship Him alone. After teaching them how to worship, the prophets remind people to worship only Allah, not to worship any inanimate objects, animals, humans or angels. Although many people believe in Allah, they also call on other beings as holy, referring to them as divine and worshipping them (An-Nahl, 16/36; Az-Zumar, 39/3; Al-Yusuf, 12/106, 109). Additionally, the prophets explain the fundamental principles that must be believed, they notify people about the existence of the afterlife and to tell them how to prepare for there.
    • After conveying and explaining the divine orders of this world and the afterlife, the prophets become exemplary figures for humans by practicing these divine orders.
    • The prophets refer to the divine orders in all issues, act according to them and do not pay attention to human desires (An-Nahl, 16/36; Az-Zumar, 39/3; Al-Yusuf, 12/106, 109).
    • They give advice to humans, thus helping them reduce their devotion to worldly things and making them decent and virtuous people.
    • They constitute absolute proof of Allah with the messages they have brought from the unknown world and from beyond the physical world.

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    "THE SEAL OF PROPHETS" ISSUE IN The ISLAMIC INTELLECTUAL HISTORY


    Metin Yurdagur, PhD


    "The Seal of Prophets" is a title to indicate that prophethood came to an end with Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and that no other prophet is to follow. In Arabic, this phrase means "to complete a task, to put a seal at the end of something and to seal a writing or document". The term "prophets," within this phrase, denotes "the conveyance by means of revelation of divine wills and messages to some superior and skilled individuals so that these individuals may communicate these messages to their societies". In this context, the "Seal of Prophets" signifies that the intermediation between Allah and His worshippers had come to an end.
    "The Seal of Prophets" in the Quran

    There is a single verse in the Quran that clearly states that prophethood ended with Prophet Muhammad (Al-Ahzab, 33/40). On the other hand, the number of verses indirectly pointing to the issue of the seal of prophets ranges from forty to one hundred according to differences in the interpretation. While commenting on these related verses, all of the interpreters emphasize that Prophet Muhammad had conveyed the last revelation, and that it was impossible for another revelation to be conveyed after him.

    "Muhammad is not the father of any man among you, but he is the messenger of Allah and the Seal of the Prophets" (Al-Ahzab, 33/40). The mentioned phrase "seal of prophets" hereby clearly address the fact that Prophet Muhammad was the last link in the chain. The term "hatem (Seal)" as found in the original Arabic of the above verse is read in two ways by the scholars of Quranic recitation due to stress differences. In both of the reading forms, it is underlined that "Muhammad is the last prophet who ended and crowned the establishment of prophethood", which means he possessed a "divine seal" status also approving and confirming all of the previous prophets.

    Interpreters also note another point being expressed in this verse. As it is known, the succession of prophets among the Jews, though there are some exceptions, passed down from father to son and continued with lineage. The verse in question constitutes a mental preparation for the reality of the "seal of the prophets."

    First, the information as to the Prophet having no son to become his prophetic heir is emphasized with the phrase: "Muhammad is not the father of any man among you." This prevented people from going after an expectation that contains the idea of prophetic responsibility being passed down from father to son, and the "seal of prophet" phrase eventually expressed that he was the "last prophet".

    As it is pointed out above, beside this particular verse many other verses indirectly refer to the sealing of the prophetic line. As a matter of fact, the Quran with the verse: "This day have I perfected your religion for you and completed My favor unto you, and have chosen for you Islam as a religion" (Quran 5:3) indicates that society in relation to religion reached the zenith of improvement during Muhammad's time as prophet, that no other prophet is expected to arrive after him and that only the wisdom of Muhammad needed to be followed.

    The information as to the Quran being under divine protection (Quran 15:9) is assessed by Muslim scholars as another divine phrase indicative of the ending of prophetic heritage with Prophet Muhammad. These scholars emphasized that the Arabic term "nabi" (messenger) was specifically used to reveal the fact that Muhammad was the last prophet. Within the verse (Quran 33:40) containing the phrase "hatemu'n nabiyyin" (seal of the prophet), it specifies that no other messenger was to be sent, which leads us to naturally conclude that no other prophet shall be sent either. In accordance with this, the establishment of a prophet remains one that inherently involves holy assignment. As the doors of prophetic selection were sealed, it logically and naturally indicated the end of the holy assignment.
    Sealing of the Prophets in Hadith1

    The sealing of the prophets issue was also addressed by the Prophet himself in that he personally spoke of his being the last link in the chain of the prophets. Some of the hadith sources under the "Seal of the Prophets" topic gather the traditions related to this characteristic of the Prophet. Among these in a figurative comparison style and concise fashion is the distinctive account depicting his rank within the line of the prophets with and explaining the removal of need for a prophet after him:

    The situation of mine and the situation of the other prophets sent before me might be likened to a person who after the completion, furnishing and decoration of his house leaves a blank for a brick in one corner of his house.

    When the visitors go around the completed house, their eyes catch the missing part and they can't help saying: ‘It is very nice indeed, yet only if had the missing part not been left incomplete!' Here I am like that cornerstone, the place of which was left unoccupied. Thus, I am the last of the prophets.

    Some accounts indicate the closure of the prophetic line by utterance of the Prophet's names such as "akib" and "hasher".

    In dogmatic notions regarding the issue, it is noted that no other prophet is to be sent after Muhammad, the "last and the seal of prophets". In works such as shamail, khasais, and dalail al-nubuwwa, it is also expressed that in the body of the Prophet there exists a tangible seal and badge of prophethood, a material "sign and indication of [his having been] the last prophet". In these works, it is expressed that previous prophets also had such signs, yet Prophet Muhammad's prophethood badge and sign were different from the signs of other prophets. This issue was analyzed separately within the hadith, biographies and history books. The term used for this sign of prophethood by the Companions and the subsequent Islamic scholars is "Seal of the Prophets". According to the sources related to this issue, on the Prophet's back between his shoulder blades there was a mark which was tangible, resembling to the shape of a seal and which was metaphorically described by the witnesses as looking like as a rosebud, pigeon/ partridge egg, fist or wart. Islamic sources provide no information as to the date when the "badge of prophethood" formed, yet it is recorded that it was not a birthmark, and it disappeared after the demise of the Prophet. Due to the similarity in terms, some people have mistakenly confused reference to this physical sign of prophethood with a seal made in the shape of a ring that had been used by Prophet Muhammad generally for the various correspondences in diplomatic relations and which was passed on to the next three caliphs who succeeded Him.
    The Issue of the Seal of Prophets as a Religious Obligation

    As can be found in sections of Islamic theology books regarding prophets, the "Seal of Prophets" issue the obvious notions in relation to this issue has been thoroughly analyzed by the scholars devoted to the Quran and sunnah2. These scholars emphasize that the divine institution of prophethood had come to an end after Prophet Muhammed and that this prophetic heritage was engraved in the pages of history, revealing the religion given to him was to remain perpetual until the end of time. They also agree that this was a matter of a religious obligation. The evidence for this conclusion by the Muslim scholars might be summarized as follows:

    1. Some notions on the issue of seal of prophets have absolutely clear meanings and are impossible to be glossed over. The first among these is the verse that indicates the Prophet is the last of all the Nabis (Quran 33:40). Other verses are also absolute proofs that the True Religion is now complete only Islam is to be accepted by humanity (Quran 33:40), those seeking a religion other than Islam shall be disappointed on the Day of Resurrection and their wishes shall never be taken into account (Quran 3:185), the Quran shall be protected from corruption (Quran 15:9) and the Prophet was sent as a prophet to all worlds (Quran 6:19, 7:158, 25:1, 34:28) The hadiths regarding the "seal of prophets" are so clear that any belief contrary to this remains impossible to be adopted. In accordance with this, anyone believing in the Quran and sunnah must absolutely believe that no prophet is to come after Prophet Muhammad.

    2. The fact that e people who learned Islam from Prophet Muhammad fought against those societies who claimed prophethood is historical evidence as to the issue of seal of prophets. If the coming of a new prophet had not been against the Quran and sunnah, the people would not have fought and killed those arriving with such false claims. Islamic scholars concurred with these people on this matter and concluded that the dissidents would not become Muslims.

    3. In addition, it should be reasonably accepted that there is no need for the coming of another prophet. As a matter of fact, Allah sends His prophets to people in order to introduce His existence and unity, declare His orders, convey information on religious and worldly issues that are necessary to be conceived by humanity and show them the right path that will enable them to become blissful both on earth and in the afterlife. The revelations conveyed by Prophet Muhammad literally contain all these necessary aspects. It is possible for people reaching puberty to acquire the necessary information by means of reasoning enlightened by the revelations and find the truth by means of revelation on the issues that are impossible to conceive with senses and mind. Moreover, the prophethood of Muhammad was universal and the revelations he received were never corrupted, thus there was no need for a new prophet. However, the fact that the prophethood ended with Prophet Muhammad bears significant conveyance and representation responsibilities on all Muslims.

    4. The fact that no prophet has come after the demise of Muhammad is one of the sociological evidences affirming the closure of prophethood. The claims of prophethood arising from time to time do not change this reality given the people never proved any of their claims and were never taken seriously either in the Islamic world or among the non-Muslims. Thus, such people were considered liars and adventurers and deemed bogus prophets throughout history.

    In accordance with this, those who possess no faith in the seal of prophethood with the arrival of Prophet Muhammad or those who doubt this fact deem themselves apostates.
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    Prophet ADAM

    PROPHET ADAM

    Suleyman Hayri Bolay, PhD

    As the father of mankind, Adam is known in Islamic sources as abu al-bashar, and since he is among the people whom Allah deemed elite, he is identified as safiyullah.


    Muslim linguists have debated over the language from which the word Adam stemmed and the root from which it was derived1. Most of the linguists argue that this word is of Arabic origin and is derived from the root al-udma meaning swarthiness or from the root al-adama meaning “type, sample”. An alternative view claims that it comes from the word al-adima meaning “outer layer of something” (rather used as adimatu’l-arz, “earth”). According to a widely believed account, Allah created Adam with the combination of soil samples taken from all around Earth. It is due to this diversity of soil that the descendants of Adam possess different characteristics. It has also been suggested that the word Adam is derived from al-udm or al-udma meaning “harmony, habit”.

    The creation of Adam is depicted in the Torah and the Holy Quran. Its pattern and timing is conveyed in the Torah in different ways in the light of two stories. According to the first story called the “clergical text”, man was created on the sixth day of creation as male and female in an image similar to that of God following the creation of the rest. In the second story called the “Yahvist text”, it is reported that the first creation was that of man followed by the woman being created from his rib. The first man (Adam) was formed from the soil of earth (adamah) by God Who then breathed life into his nostrils for Adam to become alive. In tafsirs (commentaries) of the Torah and in books considered apocryphal, it is stated that this soil was extracted from the sacred location (Solomon’s Temple in Jerusalem) and from the red, black and white soils from all over the world.

    The fact that the creation of Adam was unlike the rest of humanity is clearly established in the Holy Quran. In this context, the Quran signifies the supernatural creation of two prophets as in the following, “The creation of Jesus for Allah is like the creation of Adam. He created him of dust, then He said unto him: Be! and he is” (Surat Al-i Imran/59)

    The conclusions that can be reached from the information in the Quran, genuine hadiths (sayings of the Prophet) and other reliable Islamic sources suggest that Adam has been created from soil. They also follow that there was a certain path of development and a certain span of time related to this creation although the accurate duration is unidentifiable. Yet this path of development did not operate as a natural occasion without the intervention of divine will and power. On the contrary, all related verses point to the influence of divine will and power in the creation of Adam. The Quran leaves no suspicion in explaining that Adam did not evolve from another being, but was created from soil as the father of a completely novel living species who would be held liable and responsible contrary to all other animate and inanimate beings and in the process, he was equipped with the necessary spiritual, moral, mental and psychological capabilities. For this reason, it is impossible to reconcile the Islamic beliefs with theories which completely reject this special aspect of man’s creation and degrade him to the level of ordinary beings.

    There is no information in the Torah regarding creation other than the fact that Adam was created from the soil of earth on the sixth day. It is described in apocryphal books that Adam was created in Jerusalem on a Friday on the sixth day of creation. Again the Jews believe that Adam was created in B.C 3761-3760. While the Holy Quran does not specify the day when Adam was created, the hadiths inform us that he was created on a Friday, placed in Heaven that same day, expelled from Heaven again on a Friday, that his repentance was accepted on the same day and that he passed away on a Friday.

    In the Holy Quran this issue is generally examined from three points in the related verses. First of all, it is mentioned that Adam went through several phases starting from soil being an extremely unimportant material and continued to acquire physical and spiritual characteristics which led him to become a complete and perfect human being. This statement also serves to emphasize the power of Allah. Secondly, it is pointed out that the status of Adam among the living species is extremely elevated. Adam and his descendants are celebrated in these verses as the caliphs of earth who use the mental, intellectual, moral abilities granted by Allah to fulfill His commands. In this way, he is portrayed as both a worshipper of Allah and a person who can utilize other living entities for his own service. Various verses inform that the angels prostrated before Adam with the order of Allah. This act signifies that the level of Adam was so superior to the angels that it merited their respect. Not limited to Adam himself, such honor encompasses the entire humankind. The Quran relates to this quality of humankind also through other verses (Al-Isra 17/70: Al-Tin 95/4).

    The third concern of the Holy Quran with Adam addresses his prophethood. Even though there is no accurate verse stating that he was a prophet, the Quran explains; “Adam received from his Lord words of (revelation)” (Al-Baqarah 2/37). Allah addressed him and announced his liabilities and responsibilities (Al-Baqarah 2/33, 35; Al-Araf 7/19; Al-Ta-ha 20/117). Another verse declares that Allah preferred Adam, Noah, the Family of Abraham and the Family of 'Imran above all His creatures (Al-Imran 3/33) which indirectly implies his status as a prophet. Finally, Ahmad ibn Hanbal reports a hadith in his Musnad (V, 178, 179, 265) in which Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) identified the name of the first prophet as “Adam”.
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    Ya öğreten, ya öğrenen, ya dinleyen ya da ilmi seven ol. Fakat sakın beşincisi olma; (bunların dışında kalırsan) helâk olursun. Hadis-i Şerif

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    Prophet ABRAHAM

    PROPHET ABRAHAM

    Omer Faruk Harman, PhD

    There is more information about Prophet Abraham than about most other prophets in the Torah, in Jewish literature in general, in Christian literature, in the Quran, and in Islamic literature; Prophet Abraham is seen as a forefather by Jews, Christians and Muslims. Particularly in Jewish and Islamic sources, Prophet Abraham is mentioned most often in connection with his efforts to instruct in the belief of oneness or the unity of Allah.

    According to the Torah, Abraham's name was originally Abram, which means "great father"; it later became Abraham, which means "father of nations." In the Quran Abraham's name is mentioned 69 times. Prophet Abraham is one of the ulu'l azm prophets (great prophets) mentioned in the Quran. In line with the general method adopted by the Quran that provides information about the prophets for instruction in religion and morality and takes examples from their lives, the Quran does not provide chronological information about Prophet Abraham, unlike the Torah. Instead, the Quran introduces his role in the history of faith, as well as giving the main aspects of his teachings, his service and methods for spreading the word of Allah; it also describes religious, moral, social and familial aspects of his life, giving pertinent examples.

    When he was sent to his nation as a prophet, Abraham first delivered the word of Allah to his father, however, his father threatened to disown him. Then he invited his nation to believe in Allah, but he was not successful. The Quran indicates that Abraham pleaded with Allah to forgive his father, but this was not accepted.

    In the Quran, it is stated that Abraham struggled with the idols that his father and nation worshipped and he defended the unity of Allah. He told his nation that it was meaningless to worship heavenly bodies or their symbols, and he warned them not to believe in these objects, as they were not able to help or harm anyone.

    We are told in the Quran how Abraham was thrown into the fire by the idol worshippers because he had destroyed the idols in the temple; yet, this fire did not harm him in any way. Other events in which he made efforts to deliver the word of Allah are also related.

    As explained in other Islamic sources, as well as in the Quran, Abraham left Nimrod's land with his wife Sarah, his nephew Lot, and his men; first he stayed for some time in Harran, then in Jordan and Egypt, finally returning to Palestine.

    After his emigration, as he was elderly and did not have any children, Abraham prayed to Allah for a virtuous child. Allah sent him the glad tidings that a wise (gentle) child would be born. According to both the Torah and the Quran, Abraham's first child was Ishmael, the child of Abraham and his second wife Hagar.

    Islamic sources state that although Sarah had given Hagar to Abraham voluntarily upon Ishmael's birth she was jealous of Hagar and Ishmael and she did not want to live with them anymore. Then Allah commanded Abraham to take Hagar and Ishmael to Mecca. However, there is controversy about where they were sent and how old Ishmael was at this time.

    After leaving Hagar and Ishmael in Mecca, Abraham lived in Palestine. When his first son Ishmael was old enough to walk Abraham was put to a test by Allah and ordered to sacrifice his son. Abraham passed this test and as a reward his name became immortalized with the people who followed after him.

    Sometimes Abraham visited Hagar and Ishmael in Mecca. According to some sources, he made three visits to Mecca from Palestine. Upon Allah's command, he made his first visit with Buraq (horse), under the guidance of Archangel Gabriel. On this trip he took his two-year old son Ishmael and Hagar on Buraq and took them to the site of the Kaaba. On his second visit to see his family in Mecca, he learned that Hagar had died and he was unable to see Ishmael. When Allah ordered him to build the Kaaba, he made his third visit to Mecca. He built the Kaaba with his son and gave him the duty of proclaiming the pilgrimage.

    In the Quran it is not mentioned where or how Abraham died, but it is stated in other Islamic sources that Abraham was 200 or 175 years old and that he was buried in Hebron next to the grave of his wife Sarah.

    In the hadiths and history books it is indicated that Prophet Abraham was of medium height, and was a beautiful and cheerful person; he had hazel eyes and a wide forehead. Physically, Prophet Muhammad greatly resembled him. It is also narrated that he spoke Syrian in Kusa, but when he passed over the Euphrates after leaving Harran, he began to speak Hebrew. Also, he is remembered as abu al-adyaf (the father of guests); he circumcised himself at the age of 120 and freed his 300 slaves, who all then accepted Islam, the message of all the prophets.

    There is a great deal of information about Prophet Abraham's personality as well as his spiritual and moral qualities in the Quran: He was a descendant from the nation of Noah (As-Saffat 37/83), he is the father of believers (Al-Haj 22/78) and a friend of Allah (An-Nisa 4/125). He was shown the kingdom of the heavens and the earth (Al-An'am 6/75). He immigrated to the location where his Lord had commanded (Al-Ankabut 29/26; As-Saffat 37/99). His offspring were given the prophecy and the book (An-Nisa 4/54; Al-Hadid 57/26). Abraham was tried by his Lord with certain commands, all of which he fulfilled, and as a result he was made imam to the nations (Al-Baqara 2/124). Abraham pleaded with Allah to make leaders from his offspring, but Allah answered that His promise is not within the reach of the evil-doers (Al-Baqara 2/124). This verse proves that people of Israel's belief that they are "Allah's selected people" is invalid.

    Abraham prayed to Allah to make Mecca a city of peace (Al-Baqara 2/26; Al-Abraham 14/35), he proclaimed Mecca to be a holy city, and he prohibited the shedding of blood and other actions that were allowed in other cities from being done there. He asked Allah to make a community from his nation that bowed before Allah and to send a prophet to them (Al-Baqara 2/126-129; Al-Abraham 14/35, 40.) The prophet who is requested in the prayers of Abraham and his son Ishmael is Prophet Muhammad. In fact, there was no other prophet among Ishmael's descendants. Also, the hadith (saying of the Prophet) "I am the prayer of my father Abraham, the gospel of my brother Jesus, and the dream of my mother" supports this. As a thanksgiving for Abraham's prayer, Muslims recite his name in their daily prayers.

    In the Quran, the claims of Jews and Christians that Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob and their descendants are Jewish or Christian are rejected (Al-Baqara 2/135, 140); we are reminded that the Torah and the Bible (Gospels) were sent after Abraham (Al-i Imran 3/65). As an answer to the Christians and Jews who say "Become Jews or Christians if you want to be guided to salvation", Muslims should reply "We would rather follow the Religion of Abraham the True, he joined not gods with Allah" (Al-Baqara 2/135). On the other hand, the Arab idol worshippers were proud of being descendants of Abraham and having the duty of protecting the Kaaba which he had built. But the Quran reminds us that Abraham was never an idol worshipper, but rather that he had always been a good Muslim who knew his Lord (Ali Imran 3/95).

    In the Quran, Abraham's teachings are given a special value. Thus, Prophet Muhammad was commanded to "follow the religion of Abraham, the sane in faith; he was not of the Pagans" (Ali Imran 3/95; An-Nahl 16/123). The Messenger of Allah also revealed this in the hadiths. Abraham was given beauty and he was among the distinguished people in this world and the auspicious people in the hereafter.
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    Ya öğreten, ya öğrenen, ya dinleyen ya da ilmi seven ol. Fakat sakın beşincisi olma; (bunların dışında kalırsan) helâk olursun. Hadis-i Şerif

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    Prophet MOSES

    PROPHET MOSES

    Omer Faruk Harman, PhD

    Moses was a major prophet and a leader who freed the Israelites from the oppression of the Pharaoh; he is not only referred in Judaism and Christianity, but also in Islam. There is information about Prophet Moses in the Quran as well as in the Old and the New Testament.


    The Old Testament is almost completely concerned with the history of Prophet Moses and the people he led, the Israelites. Moses is not mentioned in the other sources of this period. The Old Testament presents Moses as a great Prophet (Deuteronomy, 34/ 10). The preeminence of Moses became a principle of faith in the creed formulated by the Maimonides. According to the Old Testament, Moses was a figure par excellence who spoke to God face to face, who was chosen by God to relate His revelation on Mount Sinai to the Israelites, and who became the king of priests and of a holy nation created from the captive people (Exodus, 19/5-6, 33/11; Numbers, 12/6-8).
    Moses is mentioned 136 times in thirty-four surahs (sections) of the Quran and he is the most frequently mentioned of all prophets in the Quran and in the authenticated hadiths (sayings of the Prophet).

    His birth, his entrance to the palace, his trip to Madyan, his selection as a prophet, his dispatch to the Pharaoh to save the Israelites, his struggle with the Pharaoh and the exodus of the Israelites from Egypt, the revelation of divine commands on Mount Sinai, events in the desert, and his leadership for Israelites are all discussed in the Quran. The Quran also relates the situation in Egypt and that of the Israelites at the time Moses was born; it also mentions that the Pharaoh separated his people, oppressed a weak group from among them, slaughtering their sons and letting the women-folk live. (Al-Baqarah 2/49; Al-A'raf 7/ 141; Ibrahim 14/6; Al-Qasas 28/4).


    In the Quran it is mentioned that Moses was specially chosen and that he became a prophet of Allah (Maryam 19/51). He was chosen above other men with the mission Allah had entrusted to him and the words that Allah had spoken to him (Al-A'râf 7/144). He had the honor of being drawn near to Allah (Maryam 19/52). He was chosen by Allah (Ta-Ha 20/13), and he was covered with the garment of love from Allah, as well as being reared under Allah's eye (Ta-Ha 20/39). Allah prepared Moses for His service (Ta-Ha 20/41) and he was an apostle who most honorable and worthy of all trust (Ad-Dukhan 44/17-18). Moses was honorable in Allah's sight (Al-Ahzab 33/69) as well as being strong and trustworthy (Al-Qa­sas 28/26). He was one of Allah's believing servants (As-Saffat 37/121-122).
    In the Quran, Moses is depicted as a prophet who gives glad tidings about the coming of Prophet Muhammad; there is mention of the coming of an illiterate prophet in the Old Testament as well (Al-A'raf 7/156). Moses was given the Book (the Scripture), the Suhuf (tablets) and the Criterion (Al-Baqa­ra 2/53; Al-Anbiya 21/48; An-Najm 53/37; Al-A'la 87/19). According to some Islamic sources the tablets he was given were made of green emeralds and the scriptures on them were written in golden. The revelation of the Old Testament to Moses was completed in Jebel El Tih. Ten pages were given to him at first, and later they became a hundred pages. Afterwards, the Old Testament was revealed to him in Hebrew (Masudi, I, 50). It was commanded that both Moses and Muhammad remain steadfast in the religion (As-Shura 42/13). Moses was criticized by his opponents for turning people away from the religion their fathers had followed (Yunus 10/78), and accused of being a sorcerer (Al-Qasas 28/48). In Islamic Tradition Moses is called Kalimatullah (the Word of God) because Allah spoke to him directly and revealed His verses to him directly.

    Moses is also mentioned in the hadiths. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) saw Moses in the 6th heaven during the Isra and Miraj. When Prophet Muhammad told Prophet Moses that Allah had enjoined fifty rekat (every consecutive circle of bending down and placing forehead on the floor during salah-the ritual prayer) of prayer upon his followers to be performed day and night, Moses told him that his ummah (Muslim community) would not be able to fulfill this duty and recommended that Muhammad return to Allah and ask that the number be less (Al-Bukhari, "Prayers", 1; "Beginning of Creation" 6). Moses is also mentioned in the story of Moses and Khidr (The Green Man) (Bukhari, '"Knowledge", 16, 19, 44). It is also reported that Moses used to fast on the Day of Ashura (Bukhari, "Funeral", 69; "Shavtn", 69; "Beginning of Creation"). It is mentioned in the hadiths that Moses was a tall person, with a dark complexion. It is said that he was a shy and modest person who used to take his baths alone even though the Israelites would take their baths all together (Bu­khari, "Bathing", 20, 7).
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    Ya öğreten, ya öğrenen, ya dinleyen ya da ilmi seven ol. Fakat sakın beşincisi olma; (bunların dışında kalırsan) helâk olursun. Hadis-i Şerif

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    Question WHY WE SHOULD LOVE Thr PROPHET

    WHY WE SHOULD LOVE THE PROPHET

    Mevlut Gungor, PhD

    The matter of loving the Prophet holds a special importance for the practice of Islam. Allah, to Whom we owe everything we have, has presented the Prophet as the most ideal example and invites those who love Him to obey His Messenger as a proof of their love. Moreover, Allah wants us to obey the Prophet sincerely, not just as a duty. This kind of obedience can only be possible if the Prophet is loved with a sincere heart. Naturally, there are reasons why we love someone; so, then, what are the reasons why we love our Prophet?
    Verses which refer to the reasons why we should love the Prophet:

    1. The role model status of the Prophet for all people:

    Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) was sent to all humankind as the "last prophet", and he was an ideal person in all aspects. This is because he was chosen and molded by Allah himself1. In the expression of the Holy Quran, he is of a tremendous nature.2

    He is a holy lamp that gives light.3
    He always guides his followers to the right path.4
    He was sent as a mercy for all people.5

    Prophet Muhammad is a perfect example for all people, especially for those who believe in Allah and the Judgment Day. As a matter of fact, this matter is clearly stated in the following verse: "Verily in the Messenger of Allah you have a good example for him who looks unto Allah and the Last Day, and remembers Allah much."6
    When the exemplary life of Prophet Muhammad is observed, it can be seen that he presented the most beautiful examples of being sincerely committed to Allah, obeying Allah's orders with love, sharing the pain of the people, helping people merely for the pleasure of Allah, turning this deed into a pleasure of the heart, loving and respecting people merely because they are human, and showing mercy when in a position of power.

    The liveliest examples of combating cruelty and evil and never abandoning righteousness or justice can be found in the Prophet's life. The most unique examples of patience, compassion, modesty and understanding by the head of the family, displaying responsibility in management, farsightedness in military matters, caring for children, orphans and the needy can all be found in the Prophet's life.7
    2. The devotion of the Prophet to believers and other people:

    As you know, love is mutual. It is nearly impossible for unrequited love to continue. The love between the Messenger of Allah and his Companions was a mutual love. As a matter of fact, his Companions loved him greatly and he them. As Allah states, the Prophet lowered his wings over them.8 He treated them kindly, and he tried to correct their mistakes without offending them. He consulted them in all his tasks. This condition is stated in the Quran as follows: "It was by the mercy of Allah that you were lenient with them (O Muhammad), for if you had been stern and fierce of heart they would have dispersed from round about you. So pardon them, and ask forgiveness for them and consult with them upon the conduct of affairs."9

    "There had come unto you a messenger, (one) of yourselves, unto whom aught that ye are overburdened is grievous, full of concern for you, for the believers full of pity, merciful."10
    3. The proof of love for Allah is obedience to the Messenger of Allah:

    It is obvious that we must thank and love the Mighty Creator to whom we owe our lives, intellect, belongings, indeed, everything we have. However, Allah clearly states in the following verse that we must obey the Prophet in order to prove our love for Allah:

    "Say, (O Muhammad, to mankind): If you love Allah, follow me; Allah will love you and forgive you your sins. Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. Say: Obey Allah and the Messenger! But if they turn away, Allah loves not the disbelievers (in His guidance)."11
    4. The necessity for Believers to hold the life of the Prophet above their own lives:

    Allah ordered that believers hold the life of the Prophet superior even to their own lives.
    "The Prophet is more important to the believers than their selves, and his wives are their mothers."12
    Our valuing the life of the Prophet more than our own life is, of course, dependent on our great love for him. This is why the Prophet himself explained that he must be loved more than anyone or anything. In parallel with this, in one of the hadiths found in Bukhari13 the Prophet orders: "A person cannot be deemed to have faith unless they love me more than their mother, father, children and all people."14In addition to this, Allah revealed some matters in detail which showed that He attached a different place and value to the Prophet. Now we would like to present some of these matters:
    1. The Blessings of Allah, the Angels and the Believers upon the Prophet:

    Allah Almighty states that He and the angels send blessings to the Prophet; this means that the Prophet is saluted with their praise. Allah then orders the believers to salute the Prophet wholeheartedly: "Lo! Allah and His angels shower blessings on the Prophet. O you who believe! Ask blessings on him and salute him with a worthy salutation." 15
    2. Consequences of persecuting the Prophet:

    Following the verse above, Allah Almighty warns those who persecute the Prophet, informing that that they will end up doomed: "Lo! those who malign Allah and His messenger, Allah hath cursed them in the world and the Hereafter, and had prepared for them the doom of the disdained."16
    3. Warning the Companions to act decently when having a meal in the house of the Prophet:

    According to an account by Ibn Abbas, the Prophet often gave meals to his Companions, yet some would come before the meal and not leave the house after they had finished their meals. Naturally, the Prophet would become uncomfortable, but he would not say anything to his guests.17 Even in such an issue, which might be considered to be a mere detail, Allah Almighty gives the following order: "O You who believe! Do not enter the houses of the Prophet for a meal without waiting for the proper time, unless permission is granted you. But if you are invited, enter, and, when your meal is ended, then disperse. Do not linger for conversation. Lo! That would cause annoyance to the Prophet, and he would be shy of asking you to go; but Allah is not shy of the truth. And when you ask of them (the wives of the Prophet) anything, ask them from behind a curtain. That is purer for your hearts and for their hearts. And it is not for you to cause annoyance to the messenger of Allah, nor should you ever marry his wives after him. Lo! in Allah's sight that would be an enormity."18
    4. Warning not to raise one's voice above the voice of the Prophet when speaking to him:

    Allah then orders in detail: "O you who believe! Do not lift up your voices above the voice of the Prophet, nor shout when speaking to him as you shout one to another, lest your works be rendered vain while you do not perceive. Lo! They who subdue their voices in the presence of the messenger of Allah, those are the ones whose hearts Allah hath proven unto righteousness. Theirs will be forgiveness and immense reward. Lo! (Holy Prophet) those who call you from behind the back of their rooms, most of them have no sense. And if they had had patience till you came forth unto them, it had been better for them. And Allah is the most Forgiving, the most Merciful."19
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    Ya öğreten, ya öğrenen, ya dinleyen ya da ilmi seven ol. Fakat sakın beşincisi olma; (bunların dışında kalırsan) helâk olursun. Hadis-i Şerif

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