Hz. MOHAMMED (S.A.V.)
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Hz. Mohammed (SAV) was born in Mecca, in 571. He was from Benisahim branch of the Koreish the most privileged tribe of Mecca and Arabia. His father was the leader of Koreish tribe and Mecca the son of Abdulmuttalip, Abdullah. His mother was Amine, daughter of Vehb bin Abd Menaf from the Zuhre branch of Koreish tribe. Hz. Mohammed (SAV) lost his father before his birth and lost his mother when he was 6 years old. Abdulmuttalip had taken care of him until his death. After his grandfather’s death, his Uncle Ebu Talip took Hz. Mohammed (SAV). He had to be a shepherd in 10-12 years old. He had a well-protected life, although he faced with very difficult situations. He was famous for his honesty. Therefore he won everybody’s appreciation and he was called as “Mohammed El-Emin” (Reliable Mohammed) in his youth.
Hz. Mohammed (SAV) went to Syria with his uncle when he was young. His uncle was tradesman. After that, he accepted to manage the business of Hz. Hatice bin Huveylid a rich widow. Hz. Hatice was 40 and Hz. Mohammed (SAV) was 25 years old when they got married. When he was 40 years old some changes occurred in his life. At that time, he preferred to escape from the crowds and isolate himself. In this period, he usually went to the Hira Mountain. He spent his time in a cave, thinking. The first revelation was brought by The Archangel Gabriel and was the verses of Koran begins with “Ikra”. Hence, Hz. Mohammed (SAV) returned to his home with a great excitement and told his wife to conceal herself. He told the event and read the verses to his wife. Hz. Hatice believed him and accepted Islam. After that he told Hz. Ebubekir, Hz. Ali and Zeyd (his slave who had been freed) that he was the prophet. All of them believed and converted to Islam.
Hz. Mohammed (SAV) was explaining his propethood to the people that he trusted. The second revelation came three years later. Hz. Mohammed (SAV) declared that he is the Prophet by the command of the Allah to the people of Mecca. First, The chiefs of Koreish tribe did not accept him. But, Islam was diffusing among the poor and the slaves. Hence, the Koreish leaders disturbed by Mohammed strength and pressured him and his believers. Islam was against their idols and their wealth and privilege were in danger. Hz. Mohammed (SAV) continued to diffuse Islam everywhere. Some of the Moslems who could not have bare the tortures and pressure had immigrated to Abyssinian, by the permission of Hz. Mohammed (SAV).
One of the important events in Mecca period was “Mirac”. Hz. Mohammed (SAV) went to Mescid-i Aksa in Jerusalem. He declared that he ascended to sky with the angels and ascended to the God. This event led the Koreish leaders to behave very harsh. They accused Hz. Mohammed (SAV) by being a liar. Hz. Mohammed (SAV) realised that, it was very difficult to spread Islam in Mecca and decided to leave the city. He went to Taif but, the people of Taif influenced by the Koreish tribe swore him and their children threw stones to him.
Hz. Mohammed (SAV) secretly talked to some tribe leaders came to Mecca from Medina in order to go for Hac(Pilgrim). They decided to immigrate from Mecca to Medina. Koreish leaders learnt that and wanted to kill Hz. Mohammed (SAV) in order to prevent the spreading of Islam in Medina. They have selected a person from each family and sent these people to kill Hz. Mohammed (SAV). But, Hz. Mohammed (SAV) learnt this event and went to his way to Medina with Hz. Ebu Bekir. Hz. Mohammed (SAV) and Hz. Ebu Bekir hidden in Sevr cave for 3 days. They arrived to Kuba near Medina on 20th September, 622. He met with the people of Medina and built the first mosque of the world. He worked in the construction with his hands.
After 14 days, he begun his journey to Medina and he prayed his namaz in Benisalim located between Kuba and Medina. He entered the people welcomed him with love. He taught the rules of Islam to the Moslems and also he organised the political, military, and administrative issues. He was the Prophet and the leader. He sent ambassadors to the tribes and invited them to Islam. Also he sent governors and judges to the places that had accepted Islam.
Hz. Mohammed (SAV) was strict about protection of the Islam. He made military regulations. People of Mecca continued enmity. On the second year of the pilgrim the Bedir War was fought and the Moslems defeated their enemies. Meccans went to the Uhut Mountain with new forces and they attacked to the Moslem Army again. In this war, the uncle of Hz Mohammed (SAV), Hz Hamza and a lot of Moslem had martyred and Hz Mohammed (SAV) was injured. After this triumph, Mecca people took Hayber Jewish on their side and walked through Medina, in 627. Hz Mohammed (SAV) defended the city. The enemies went back because they could not have taken any result after twenty days of siege. After Hendek (Trench) War many tribes had accepted Islam. In 628, Hubeydiye Agreement was signed with Mecca. With this agreement Mecca had accepted the authority of Hz Mohammed (SAV). Next year, Moslems captured the Hayber Castle from the Jews. Hz Mohammed (SAV) marched through Mecca with an army composed of 10.000 soldiers, in 630. The Moslems settled in Mecca.
Hz Mohammed (SAV) went to Hac with a 100.000 thousand people and read famous Farewell Sermon, in 632. This Sermon was explaining important principles of Islam. It included equivalence of people, women rights, forbidding of usury and blood feud, and a lot of social subjects. Hz Mohammed (SAV) turned back to Medina after Farewell Hac and he got ill suddenly. He died on 8th June 632 in the arms of his wife Ayse. He was buried in Hz Ayse’s room and that room was converted to a mausoleum.
All three sons of Hz Mohammed (SAV) died before they got married. Among his four daughters only Fatma had a child, she was married with Ali.